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Working principle of RV reducer in humanoid robot

RV reducers play a crucial role in achieving precise motion control in robots. They are devices used to reduce speed and increase torque, commonly found in robot joint drive systems. The principle, advantages, and disadvantages of RV reducers need to be fully considered in controlling the motion of robots.


The operation principle of RV reducers is based on a special type of reduction mechanism known as planetary gears. This reduction mechanism consists of a central gear (sun gear), a set of peripheral gears (planet gears), and an internal gear (planet carrier). The central gear is connected to the peripheral gears, while the internal gear interacts with the peripheral gears through a special structure, resulting in reduction.

In robot control, RV reducers convert high-speed input into low-speed, high-torque output. This reduction mechanism ensures that robots can achieve precise control needed for various complex tasks. Due to its compact structure, high efficiency, and accuracy, RV reducers are widely adopted in robot applications.


  1. High Precision: RV reducers provide high-precision motion control, crucial for tasks requiring precise positioning and complex movements.
  2. High Torque Density: Despite their small size, RV reducers offer high torque density, enabling robots to handle larger loads when necessary.
  3. Stability: The design of RV reducers ensures stable and reliable operation, maintaining efficient performance over extended periods.
  4. Compactness: Compared to other transmission devices, RV reducers have a relatively small volume, allowing for more flexible robot structure and layout designs.
  5. Low Noise: Due to their design principles, RV reducers typically produce low noise during operation, essential for applications requiring operation in quiet environments.


  1. Cost: RV reducers are often relatively expensive, which may be a limiting factor in some budget-constrained applications.
  2. Maintenance: Despite typically having a long lifespan, if maintenance or replacement is needed, the complex internal structure of RV reducers may result in high maintenance costs.
  3. Weight: Although RV reducers are relatively small, their internal structure and materials may contribute to a certain degree of weight increase, which could be disadvantageous in some lightweight applications.
  4. Efficiency: While RV reducers generally have high efficiency, there is still energy loss during the conversion process, especially under high load conditions.


In conclusion, RV reducers play a crucial role in achieving precise motion control in robots. Despite having some disadvantages, their advantages such as high precision, high torque density, and stability make them widely used in various robot applications. With ongoing technological advancements, the performance and cost of RV reducers may further improve, driving progress and applications in the field of robotics.

Link: Fubao Mechanical >> Working principle of RV reducer in humanoid robot

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